Eradicating Communicable Diseases for Sustainable Development

The United Nations approved the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the
Global Goals, in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, safeguard the
environment, and ensure that by 2030, everyone lives in peace and prosperity. The 17 SDGs
are interconnected, recognizing that actions in one area have an impact on outcomes in
others and that development must strike a balance between social, economic, and
environmental sustainability.

Countries have agreed to give priority to those who are the most behind. The Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) aim to eliminate poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination
against women and girls. To realise the SDGs in whatever context, all of society’s creativity,
know-how, technology, and financial resources are required.
Goal 3
Goal 3 of the sustainable development goals envisions to “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.” It identifies a total of 13 targets.
Target 3.3
By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
Indicators
Indicator 3.3.1: Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex,
age and key populations
Indicator 3.3.2: Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population
Indicator 3.3.3: Malaria incidence per 1,000 population
Indicator 3.3.4: Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population
Indicator 3.3.5: Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical
diseases
Definitions and Basic Concepts
What is HIV?
The human immunodeficiency virus causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a chronic, potentially fatal disease (HIV). HIV impairs your body’s ability to fight infection and disease by destroying your immune system.
HIV is an infection spread through sexual contact (STI). It can also spread by contact with
infected blood, illicit injectable drug usage, and needle sharing. During pregnancy,
childbirth, or breastfeeding, it can also be passed from mother to kid.
What is the unit of measure?
Number of newly infected people per 1,000 uninfected population
Key facts and estimates
HIV is a major global public health concern, having claimed the lives of 36.3 million [27.2–47.8 million] people to date. At the end of 2020, there were an estimated 37.7 million [30.2–45.1 million] persons living with HIV, with almost two-thirds (25.4 million) living in the WHO African Region.In 2020, 680 000 [480 000–1.0 million] individuals will die from HIV-related causes, while 1.5 million [1.0–2.0 million] will contract the virus.
Indicator 3.3.2
Definitions and Basic Concepts
What is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal infectious illness that affects mostly the lungs.
Tuberculosis bacteria are communicated from person to person via minute droplets
discharged into the air by coughs and sneezes.In 1985, tuberculosis infections began to rise in affluent countries, mainly due to the advent of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV affects the immune system, making it incapable of fighting TB bacteria. Few observations indicated the decline of Tuberculosis in the United States in 1993, because of improved control strategies. However, it remains a source of concern.
What is the unit of measure?
The tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population as defined as the estimated number of
new and relapse TB cases (all forms of TB, including cases in people living with HIV) arising in a given year, expressed as a rate per 100,000 population.
Key facts and estimates
As per UN data & MediGence in 2020, 1.5 million individuals will have died from tuberculosis (including 214 000 people with HIV). TB is the world’s 13th biggest cause of mortality and the second leading infectious killer (behind HIV/AIDS). Globally, an estimated 10 million people will contract tuberculosis (TB) by 2020. There are 5.6 million men, 3.3 million women, and 1.1 million children in the country. Tuberculosis is seen in all countries and in all age groups.
Indicator 3.3.3
Definitions and Basic Concepts
What is malaria?
Malaria is a fever illness caused by Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted to humans by
mosquito bites from infected female Anopheles mosquitos. Human malaria is caused by five parasitic species, two of which – P. falciparum and P. vivax – are the most dangerous. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest and most common on the African continent. In most places outside of Sub-Saharan Africa, P. vivax is the most common malaria parasite.
The first signs of malaria, such as fever, headache, and chills, come 10–15 days after the infective mosquito bite and might be mild and difficult to distinguish from other illnesses. P. falciparum malaria can escalate to severe sickness and death within 24 hours if left
untreated.
What is the unit of measure?
Cases per 1000 population at risk.
Key facts and estimates
In 2020, there were an estimated 241 million cases of malaria worldwide. The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 627 000 in 2020. The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2020, the region was home to 95% of malaria cases and 96% of malaria deaths. Children under 5 accounted for about 80% of all malaria deaths in the Region
Indicator 3.3.4
Definitions and Basic Concepts
What is hepatitis B?
The hepatitis B virus causes a dangerous liver infection called hepatitis B. (HBV). Hepatitis B infection can develop chronic in certain patients, meaning it lasts longer than six months.
Chronic hepatitis B increases your chances of developing liver failure, cancer, or cirrhosis, a condition in which the liver scars permanently. Even if their signs and symptoms are severe, most adults with hepatitis B recover completely. Chronic (long-term) hepatitis B infection is more common in infants and children.
What is the unit of measure?
This indicator is measured indirectly through the proportion of children 5 years of age who
have developed chronic HBV infection (i.e. the proportion that tests positive for a marker of infection called hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]). 1 Hepatitis B surface antigen: a protein from the virus’s coat. A positive test for HBsAg indicates active HBV infection. The immune response to HBsAg provides the basis for immunity against HBV, and HBsAg is the main component of HepB.
Key facts and estimates
WHO estimates that 296 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B infection in
2019, with 1.5 million new infections each year. In 2019, hepatitis B resulted in an estimated 820 000 deaths, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).
Indicator 3.3.5
Definitions and Basic Concepts
What is interventions against neglected tropical diseases?
The number of persons who require treatment and care for one or more of the neglected
tropical diseases (NTDs) identified in the WHO NTD Roadmap and World Health Assembly decisions and reported to WHO. Treatment and care is defined widely to include preventive, curative, surgical, and rehabilitative care. It specifically includes both: 1) The yearly average number of people who require preventative chemotherapy (PC) for at least one PC-NTD; and 2) The annual average number of new cases requiring individual treatment and care for other NTDs. Other critical NTD interventions (e.g. vector control, veterinary public health, water, sanitation, and hygiene) will be addressed in the context of other targets and indicators, such as Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and universal access to water and sanitation.
What is the unit of measure?
Absolute count of the number of people
Key facts and estimates
India with around 734 million people requiring interventions against neglected tropical
diseases topped the list of countries which require interventions against NTDs around the
world followed by Nigeria and Indonesia.
Conclusion
Goal 3 of the SDGs aims to ensure health and well-being for people around the globe. It
views health, freedom from diseases, fitness and well-being as one of the most essential
indicators if development.

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